Pressure switch wiring?

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Richard D White

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I mentioned in some of my previous posts that my well was dug long before the house was built. So the well breaker is on the meter box about 100' from the well and the house is another 50' from the well. House ->50' well
->100' to breaker. There is only 1 run of 12/2 cable from the well to the house where the switch is. I'm guessing that they wired one leg direct at the well and are just using the switch as a relay to close the loop. Does this sound reasonable?

Second: the run from the well to the house is 12/2 SJOOW cord. I plan to put a junction box to splice that to 12/2 romex to run the additional 30' to the new tank and switch.
 
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Richard D White

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I've added a diagram of what is going on as well as a pic of how the current pressure switch is wired. I've got 120v from black to ground, 120v from white to ground and 240 from black to white. There is not a control box that I'm aware of.
Is it a 240V pump? Does it have a control box? A 240V circuit needs to switch both legs.
 

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Reach4

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The supply pair will not be on the same half of the pressure switch. Otherwise the contacts on that side would short the supply together, and trip the breaker. This is the preferred wiring, but it is not the only way. Still, a 240 volt well pump switch should have 4 wires. M represents the pump motor.

Now if you tell me that this is working as you have in your photo, I will know they are only switching one leg of the circuit, and that one of the wires is not going right to the breaker panel; one is going to the pump.

index.php


Since you are using the white wire as a hot, you should mark each end of the white wire with black tape around the insulation.

Saying that you measured 240 volts across terminal 1 and 2 is important to understanding what is going on. Absent that, I would have presumed a 120 volt pump.

Is the breaker for the pump a 2-pole breaker?
 
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Richard D White

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The supply pair will not be on the same half of the pressure switch. Otherwise the contacts on that side would short the supply together, and trip the breaker. This is the preferred wiring, but it is not the only way. M represents the pump motor.

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Since you are using the white wire as a hot, you should mark each end of the white wire with black tape around the insulation.
Thanks. So I'm guessing based on current wiring that this diagram must be how its wired?
 

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Reach4

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I would think so. That would be OK for a 120 (115) volt pump.
 

Richard D White

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Looking at the receipts for the installation it lists a 1.5 hp Gould's pump and control box. Not sure where the box is located.
 

Reach4

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What is the model number of the control box? Some "deluxe" boxes have a relay built into the box, and the pressure switch only operates the relay.
 

Richard D White

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What is the model number of the control box? Some "deluxe" boxes have a relay built into the box, and the pressure switch only operates the relay.
Feel kind of stupid as the control box is mounted next to the meter box on the pole. Not sure of the model as its unreadable. The receipt just says Goulds 1.5 hp control box. Here is a pic
 

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WY_WaterWellGuy

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I think this article might clear some things up for you


https://franklinaid.com/1997/07/22/560/


A common question received on the Hotline is whether it is acceptable to break only one wire with a pressure switch, float switch or probe system? As a water system’s primary operating control, the control switch senses when to turn off the water supply, either by pressure or level. Improperly wired switches may lead to control box or submersible motor failure.

When connecting the power supply to a Franklin submersible motor and control box, all local, state and national codes must be followed. The National Electrical Code (NEC) states in section 430-84: “The controller shall not be required to open all conductors to the motor.” However, the preferred method of supplying power to a Franklin submersible 2-wire or 3-wire motor is to break both incoming power lines before the control box on a 3-wire with your control device.





Typically, using a control device which only breaks one line does not cause a problem. However, if the wire which is interrupted develops a ground fault or insulation breakdown between the control device and the motor, the uninterrupted wire will supply low voltage to the motor and/or control box thru the ground fault (i.e., a 230 volt supply would have 115 volts to ground). This low voltage can cause premature failure of the motor and control box components. A submersible motor and control box will try to run as long as the low voltage is available. However, it will typically draw high amps and eventually fail. Breaking both lines eliminates this potential problem by removing all power from the control box and motor. This can be done with most standard control switches or floats.

If you are using a float switch or control switch that only has one set of contacts, then you can use a 2-pole magnetic contactor or relay. When a magnetic contactor or relay is used, the coil voltage of the contactor is controlled by the original switch, float or probe. The power supply to the motor or control box is supplied through the contacts of the relay or contactor.

Another problem when only one line is broken is that a voltage potential may exist at the control box or motor, even though the control device is open. This could cause a work hazard during repair.

Only breaking one line to control a submersible motor is done frequently, typically meets National Electrical Code requirements and may meet local codes. However, it is not the preferred method for the reasons mentioned. You should interrupt both in-coming power legs whenever possible.
 

Greenmonster123

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I had a similar situation at my cabin property. The well was 450’ from my cabin location but I had power 100’ from the well. I ran a 18/2 from the pressure switch at cabin to the panel near the well. The 18/2 went into a relay that broke the circuit from the that panel to the well. Saved a bundle in wire costs.
 

Valveman

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That size pump is certainly 230V. They make control boxes called "Delux" that has the extra power relay in it. I would do like Greenmonster says and use a relay for the remote pressure switch.
 

Wrowe

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Just came across this post and have a similair setup. I have a couple questions that I hope someopne could answer for me. My situation is that I have one wire going directly from the breaker to the pump and the second wire going from the breaker by way of the pressure switch. I do not have a control box. There was a control box at one point I assume from an old pump but it now only functions as a junction box and the only thing in there is a red heart shaped device that is wired into the system. Is this normal? And what would the small red heart shaped device be? And is it needed?
Thanks!
 

Bannerman

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I have one wire going directly from the breaker to the pump and the second wire going from the breaker by way of the pressure switch.
Assuming you are referring to a two pole breaker, the voltage should be 240 volts. Because the wiring from the breaker box will be run within a cable or conduit, both wires should then be routed to the pressure switch with another set of wires to run to the pump within a cable or conduit.

what would the small red heart shaped device be?
Post photo.
 

WY_WaterWellGuy

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Does it look something like this? If so, that would be an old Red Jacket Watt Knot. Basically just an old school surge protector. No, you do not need it for your pump to run. Your motor almost certainly has a built in lightning arrestor but additional surge protection is never a bad idea.
 

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Wrowe

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Thanks for the replies. I will try to gets some pics and post tomorrow as the pressure tank and switch are outside in a pit where access to the well is. The wires are running through two different conduits. The 3 wires running to the pump in one conduit and a black, white and ground wire running in a seperate conduit to the pressure switch. My concern is the one wire that runs from the breaker directly to the pump. Does that mean the pump is constantly running on one leg and using power all the time?
 
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